How Partizip I and Partizip II in German work?

There are 2 participles in German: Partizip I ((Partizip Präsens) and Partizip II (Partizip Perfekt)


1. Partizip I
• Construction
Infinitive of the VERB + ‘d”
For example
Haben -> habend
Singen -> singend
Fähren -> fährend
Können -> könnend
Note: There are 2 verbs that don’t follow this rule:
Sein -> Seinend
Tun -> tuend
Sein and tun are the only verbs in German that do not end with “en” or with “rn” and that is why they form the Partizip I differently.
• Usage
The Partizip I behaves, for all intents and purposes, like an adjective. This means it is not declined in non-attributive function and is declined in attributive function due to :
– Weak declension
– Mixed declension
– Strong declension
 Partizip I with a non-attributive function
The Partizip I can be isolated in the clause. If this is the case, it is not declined:
– Es ist dringend (It is urgent)
– Das sieht wirklich spannend aus (That looks really fascinating)
 Partizip I with weak declension
If the Partizip I is preceded by a definite article or by other particles that are characterized by weak declension, it is declined:
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative Der dringende Termin Die dringende Entscheidung Das dringende Thema Die dringenden Entscheidungen
Accusative Den dringenden Termin Die dringende Entscheidung Das dringende Thema Die dringenden Entscheidungen
Dative Dem dringenden Termin Der dringenden Entscheidung Dem dringenden Thema Den dringenden Entscheidungen
Genitive Des dringenden Termins Der dringenden Entscheidung Des dringenden Themas Der dringenden Entscheidungen

 Partizip I with strong declension
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative Ein dringender Termin Eine dringende Entscheidung Ein dringendes Thema Einige dringenden Entscheidungen
Accusative Einen dringenden Termin Eine dringende Entscheidung Ein dringendes Thema Einige dringenden Entscheidungen
Dative Einem dringenden Termin Einer dringenden Entscheidung Einem dringenden Thema Einigen dringenden Entscheidungen
Genitive Eines dringenden Termins Einer dringenden Entscheidung Eines dringenden Themas Einiger dringenden Entscheidungen

 Partizip I with strong declension
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative Dringender Termin Dringende Entscheidung Dringendes Thema Dringende Entscheidungen
Accusative Dringenden Termin Dringende Entscheidung Dringendes Thema Dringende Entscheidung
Dative Dringendem Termin Dringender Entscheidung Dringendem Thema Dringenden Entscheidungen
Genitive Dringendes Termins Dringender Entscheidung Dringendes Themas Dringender Entscheidungen

2. Partizip II
• Construction
Its construction depends on the verb in question:
Regular verbs without a prefix
Construction: ge- (Verb STEM) – (e)t
Infinitive Partizip II Meaning
Kauf-en Ge- kauf-t To buy
Regn-en Ge-regn-e-t To rain
An “-e-” is added to some verbs between the stem and the final “-t”.
Regular verbs with separable prefix
Construction: (SEPARABLE PREFIX) – ge – (VERB STEM) -(e)t
Infinitive Partizip II Meaning
Auf-rund-en Auf-ge-rund-e-t To round up
Ein-kauf-en Ein-ge-kauf-t To go shopping

Regular verbs with inseparable prefix
Construction : (inseparable prefix) – (verb stem) -(e)t
Infinitive Partizip II Meaning
Be-nutz-en Be-nutz-t To use
Ent-wickel-t Ent-wickel-t To develop

Verbs ending with “-ieren”
Construction: (verb stem) –t
Infinitive Partizip II Meaning
Studier-en Studiert-t To study (at the University)
Rotier-en Rotier-t To rotate

Strong verbs
Most strong verbs follow the structure: ge-(VERB STEM) – en
Infinitiv Partizip II Meaning
Komm-en Ge-komm-en To come
Fahr-en Ge-fahr-en To drive
Although a few other verbs do not follow this rule:
Infinitiv Partizip II Meaning
sein gewesen To be
haben gehabt To have
werden geworden To become/to be

• Usage
– The following verb tenses are used for its construction in the indicative as well as subjunctive:
Perfekt
Plusquamperfekt
Futur II
– It is used for all of the tenses in the passive voice.

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